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Glossary of Financial Terms

At D. & A. MacLeod Company Ltd., we understand that our industry has many terms that you may not be familiar with. Below, we’ve compiled a list of some common terms for your convenience. 


If you still have questions, give us a call to visit one of our offices in Ottawa, Brockville, Cornwall or throughout Ontario.

Assignment to Trustee

In bankruptcy, a debtor can formally assign all property to a trustee who will then use the property to satisfy creditors.

Creditor

This is the person or business to whom a debt is owed.

Discharge

This term applies to the time when a debtor is released from the obligation to pay a debt.

Dividend

If you owe money to multiple creditors, this is the portion paid to the trustee (see Assignment to Trustee defined above) to each creditor with a proven claim.

Encumbrance

This refers to a prior claim on a property (such as a lien or a mortgage) which reduces its value.

Equity

When the value of a property appreciates, equity is the difference between the amount owed and the actual market value of the property.

Exempt Assets

This refers to property which, by law, a trustee cannot use to satisfy creditors.

First Meeting

A meeting between the trustee of an estate and the creditors to discuss a proposal and any attendant inspections or instructions the creditors may require.

Garnishment

This is the process by which a creditor who has obtained a judgment may serve a summons (called a garnishee summons) upon a debtor’s employer or bank to release the debtor’s wages or bank account to pay what is owed to the creditor.

Guarantor

This is an individual who takes the responsibility of repaying someone else’s debt or loan.

Insolvent

This refers to an individual who is unable to pay mounting debts in a timely manner or one whose debts are well in excess of their assets.

Inspector

Creditors appoint an inspector to work with the trustee and oversee the trustee’s handling of proposals and property in a bankruptcy.

Judgment

This term applies to the court’s decision on the validity of a creditor’s statement of claim.

Liability

This refers to any debts, including money owed for taxes, services, liens, etc. that will be deducted from a creditor’s assets.

Official Receiver

This refers to an employee of the Office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy with whom one files the documents required for a proposal or bankruptcy who officiates meetings between trustees and creditors.

Orderly Payment of Debts

This is the procedure defined in the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, by which a person can pay off his or her debts.

Receiver

This is an agent appointed by the court to review and inventory the debtor’s assets and income, indicating what may be distributed to creditors and what is exempt.

Registrar

This is an officer of the provincial court empowered by the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act to hear and act in matters of bankruptcy.

Statement of Assets

This applies to a financial statement which indicates the value of a debtor’s assets and the details of debts owed, including the amount and the names and addresses of all creditors.

Statement of Receipts and Disbursements

This is a financial statement drawn up by the trustee and indicates receipt of property, what has been paid to creditors, what property remains unsold and any disbursements or fees charged for the administration of the estate.

Trustee in Bankruptcy

This is an individual licensed by the Superintendent of Bankruptcy (a federal official with oversight of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act) to manage bankruptcy and proposal estates.

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D & A MacLeod Company Ltd

343 O'Connor St.

Ottawa, ON K2P1V9

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